Evolution of Military Law in the United States

While in service I visited the United States as a guest of the US Air Force. As I was sometimes a presiding officer of Court Martial in India (being legally qualified), I was interested how the US military law functions. One significant difference is that in the US, there is at the moment one Unified Military Code which is applicable to all the 4 service arms namely the army, airforce, navy and coast guard, while in India we have a separate military code for each service.

The Unified Military code is a comparatively recent occurrence and was signed into law by President Truman only in 1951. Prior to this the code was amorphous and had very fewer checks and balances. The US military law took almost 175 years to evolve to the present Unified Military Code.

The US was a colony of England till 1776, till a war of Independence … Read More

Evolution, Society and Sexual Dimorphism in Mammals

In 1798 Malthus’ Essay on the principle of Population sowed a seed that was to germinate in Charles Darwin’s mind as the theory of natural selection, published in the Origin of Species in 1859. Malthus had noted that although a breeding pair generally produces a total of more than two offspring, many populations do not grow as fast as this would imply, if at all, Darwin was impressed by the subtlety of species’ adaptations and saw that individuals differed in the detail of their adaptation and thus their “fitness”, i.e. the perfection of adaptations to prevailing conditions. The variation between individuals arose from the mixing of genetic material involved in sexual reproduction, and from mutation, although the connection between these mechanisms and Darwin’s theory was not realized until 1900 when Mendal’s work of 1865 was rediscovered.

Since populations do not necessarily grow, many of the young born must die, and … Read More